since the 2011 constitutionexplicitly gives Moroccans living abroad full citizenship rights, including the right to vote and run in elections. However, following the referendum, diaspora Moroccans could only vote through a complex proxy system. The Council of Europe noted in a report on the elections that “the procedure for voting by proxy for Moroccan citizens residing abroad does not facilitate the exercise of the constitutional right to vote.” Currently, five million of Morocco’s 33 million citizens live abroad. Morocco briefly allowed citizens living abroad to vote directly in the 1984 parliamentary elections but canceled the process until 2011. When the country voted on constitutional amendments that summer in a referendum, Moroccans living abroad were able to vote directly at embassies or consulates.